The life expectancy of an individual is a measure of how long they should live based on their current mortality rate. Advances in medical technology, improved living conditions, and better nutrition and hygiene have all contributed to an increase in life expectancy over time.
The average life expectancy in ancient civilizations was around 30-40 years, although this varied greatly depending on factors such as location, socio-economic status, and disease prevalence. Many regions of the world were still recovering from the effects of the Black Death, which had swept across Europe and Asia in the 14th century, killing an estimated 75-200 million people.
Aside from these challenges, new surgical techniques and herbal remedies were developed and other forms of traditional medicine were used more often during the 12th century. As a result of these advances, life expectancy and overall health will continue to improve in the future.
Advances in medical science, including the discovery of antibiotics and vaccines, and improvements in living conditions, including clean water, improved sanitation, and better nutrition, led to dramatic increases in life expectancy in many countries during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
The average life expectancy in Europe reached 70 years by the mid-20th century, and continued to rise into the 21st.
In many European countries, the average life expectancy at birth is around 80 years, one of the highest in the world. Different countries and regions within Europe, however, have varying life expectancies, with some countries, such as Sweden and Switzerland, having life expectancies over 83 years, while others, such as Ukraine, have life expectancies closer to 70 years.
There have been concerns about a slowdown in life expectancy increases in some European countries, particularly in Eastern Europe, due to factors such as the opioid epidemic and increasing smoking and obesity rates. Despite this, life expectancy in Europe is expected to continue to increase in the coming years due to advancements in medical technology and improved living conditions.
Diseases facing Europe
1-In Europe, TB has been a leading cause of death for thousands of years and is still present today. In some countries, particularly in Eastern Europe, TB remains a significant health challenge despite antibiotic development.
2-Europe once had a high incidence of malaria, particularly in the warmer, southern regions. Recent decades have seen a reduction in malaria incidence in Europe due to widespread use of insecticides and improved living conditions.
3- The cholera disease is transmitted through contaminated water and was responsible for several major outbreaks in Europe during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Due to improved water and sanitation systems, cholera is much less common in Europe today.
4-Bubonic plague – A major endemic disease in European history, the bubonic plague caused the Black Death in the 14th century, which killed between 75-200 million people in Europe and Asia.
5-During the 18th and 19th centuries, smallpox was a highly contagious disease that caused widespread outbreaks in Europe. As a result of widespread vaccination, smallpox has been eradicated worldwide.
With the increasing globalization of travel and trade, new endemic diseases have emerged in Europe, such as dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases, as well as previously controlled diseases, like measles. Public health measures, such as vaccination programs and disease surveillance systems, will be required to address these new endemic diseases.